Issue 49 - March 2023
You can access here the 49th issue of the European ALARA Network Newsletter.
- What is ALARA? Why is ALARA difficult to implement? [according to ChatGPT];
- Restriction of exposure in veterinary practice;
- Future challenge in theragnostic centres taking into account all the radiological protection measures;
- Introducing EAN Workshop n° 20 on Interventional Radiology & Nuclear Medicine;
- A synthesis of the European ALARA Network 1st webinar
- Relations with other organisations: annouvement of ETRAP conference
- Life of EAN, next events;
The Editorial Board. —
Workshop 19' (webinar) "Challenges in applying the radiation protection system in the management of NORM and radon", online, 8 December 2022
WHY THIS TOPIC? — The International Commission on Radiological Protection system of protection is based on three fundamental principles: justification, optimisation and dose limitation; they apply to three types of situations of exposure to ionising radiations: (those that can be) planned, (in case of) emergency and existing (from sources that already exist when decisions to control them are made) along with three categories of exposures: occupational (i.e. workers), medical patients and the public (ICRP, 2007, ICRPedia).
Radon and NORM (naturally occurring radioactive materials) exposures have been categorized by ICRP as existing exposure situations (ICRP 2014; 2016; Lecomte, 2016; ICRP, 2019). However, both types of sources present specificities, making the choices about the type of exposure situation and the categories of exposure somewhat challenging and areas of confusion [Cool, 2013]. In some circumstances (for example in [Euratom, 2013]), radon and NORM are considered as planned exposure situations and exposure controlled as such. ICRP has recognized that further clarity is needed on the interpretation of exposure situations [Clément, 2021].
ICRP has insisted that the optimisation principle is a systematic process that apply irrespectively of the exposure situation: fundamentally, the exposure of the individuals should always be kept ALARA below certain dose criteria, be it called “reference level” or “dose constraint” depending on the case. Nonetheless, the protection strategy should be designed based on the characteristics of the situation and the circumstances of the exposure and a graded approach might be appropriate.
The application of the optimisation principle is the cornerstone of the activities of the European ALARA Network. Furthermore, the EAN also aims to assist ICRP in the practical implementation of its recommendations and to monitor the development of the new general recommendations [EAN, 2021], as a Special Liaison Organisation.
OBJECTIVE — The EAN would like to examine how the optimisation principle has been applied in the case of NORM and radon (at workplace or in other circumstances) and whether the choices of exposure type and exposure categories affect the practical implementation of ALARA.
A webinar will be organised to present an overview of experiences and discussed if the elements of the optimisation process could be influenced by the type of exposure situation/categories of exposure:
- Selection of the appropriate dose criteria (dose constraint, reference level);
- Dose assessment;
- Identification of the protective options and selection of the best option;
- Implementation, monitoring of exposure and iteration.
PROGRAMME. — The programme of the webinar is available: here.
RESULTS. — In total 168 participants have registered to the webinar and almost 110 attended the live 8 December 2022. AGES, Austria have provided an in-kind and very welcome support for the registration and holding the webinar.
The replay of the webinar is available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g9fdblFRUOY (duration: 2 h 20').
The slideshows are also available:
- The philosophy of the ICRP system applied to NORM and Radon, Mr. J F Lecomte, IRSN, France (pdf);
- Practical experience from Norway in NORM remediation, Mrs. M V Holmstrand, DSA, Norway (pdf);
- Feedback on radiation protection for NORM facilities and underground workplaces, Mrs. K N Rovenská, SURO, Czech Republic & RadoNorm partner (pdf);
- Radon potential map of the UK - updating and implementation, Mrs. T Gooding, UKHSA, United Kingdom (pdf);
- Optimization in protection from radon: problems and proposals, Mr. F. Bochicchio, ISS, Italy (pdf).
- A synthesis of the presentation and discussions will be produced and published here. ◼︎
Clement, 2021. Keeping the ICRP recommendations fit for purpose, C. Clement et al. 2021 Journal of Radioogical Protection 41 1390.
Cool, 2013. Review of the ICRP system of protection: the approach to existing exposure situations, D. A. Cool, March 2015, Annals of the ICRP 44(1 Suppl).
EAN, 2021. European ALARA Network Strategic Agenda 2021-2026.
Euratom, 2013. Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom of 5 December 2013 laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, Official Journal of the European Union, L 013, 17 January 2014.
ICRP, 2007. The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 103. Ann. ICRP 37(2–4).
ICRP, 2014. Radiological Protection against Radon Exposure. ICRP Publication 126. Ann. ICRP 43(3).
ICRP, 2019. Radiological protection from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in industrial processes. ICRP Publication 142. Ann. ICRP 48(4).
ICRPedia, http://icrpaedia.org/Exposure_Categories_and_Situations, June 2019.
Lecomte, 2016.J. F. Lecomte, Understanding existing exposure situations. Annals of the ICRP 2016 45:1_suppl, 54-63.
Working Group: ALARA for Radon At Work
L. Davidson, 2020, Free to use under Unsplash Licence.
Why a Working Group?
Exposure to radon represents an important contribution to the exposure of the public and the workers to ionizing radiation. In Europe, the national regulations for the protection of workers against exposure to ionizing radiation and radon in particular have been updated with the implementation of the Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom. Compared with the former Directive, the number of workplaces potentially concerned by the regulation has increased and now include many workplaces not previously aware of radioactivity and without a radiation protection system in place. The management of radon can be challenging in practice and even for radiation protection specialists, radon might not be an easy problem to solve.
Therefore, it seems appropriate for the European ALARA Network (EAN) to engage the collection of the early feedbacks of the application of the new regulatory framework to identify why questions are raised and where difficulties are met to share it to a wider audience. This action could also be the opportunity to collect good practices to address radon and share it at the same time.
In March 2021, the Working Group ALARA for Radon at the Workplace (A-RAW) was set up. The working group developed a survey instrument to collect elements from national regulation and case studies in the management of radon. The working group actively disseminated the survey and collected feedbacks from Radiation Protection Authorities/Agencies (RPA) and National Insurance Fund. A synthesis of the collected feedbacks have been elaborated.
The objectives of the working group include sharing the results and the members are looking for the opportunities to present the result in conference and by the publication of an article.
- Minutes of the Meeting n°1, including the term of reference of the working group, March 2021
- Minutes of the Meeting n°2, June 2021
- Survey instrument, June 2021
- Minutes of the Meeting n°3, September 2021
- Data collected from 7 countries: Belgium, France, Ireland, Norway, Slovenia, Switzerland, United-Kingdom
- Abstract to IRPA Budapest Conference and presentation (2 June 2022)
- Presentation at ROOMS conference (27 September 2022)
- Application of the ALARA Principle for radon at work: feedback from the European ALARA Network, S. Andresz, J. Morgan, C. Nuccetelli, M. Palacios, C. Schieber, M. Sneve, N. Stritt, H. Synnott and F. Vermeersch, Journal of Radiological Protection, Accepted manuscript online, https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/ac9b46
Issue 47 - April 2022
You can access here the 47th issue of the European ALARA Network Newsletter.
- Radiation Protection for ALARA implementation during MINERVA Design and Construction Phases;
- The United Kingdom Dental Guidance Note - 2nd edition;
- Irradiators with High Activity Sources to be Replaced
- Optimisation Actions of Remediation in a Legacy NORM site in Norway
- Life of EAN and relations with other organisations
The Editorial Board
Issue 45 - April 2021
You can access here the 45th issue of the European ALARA Network Newsletter.
The Graded approach for workplaces in the context of the implementation of Directive Euratom 2013/59
Contamination incidents during injection of radoopharmaceuticals an OTHEA/RELIR incident
Reminder about the OTHEA/RELIR
Action Plan to strengthen the radiological safety and security (of sources) in Switzerland (RADISS)
Fukushima+10 list of events
Life of EAN and relation with other organizations.
Issue 44 - November 2020
You can access here the 44th issue of the European ALARA Network Newsletter.
key principles in radiation protection can also apply to protection from Covid
new regulation for the protection against radon at work in France
optimization, rethinking the art of reasonable - NEA workshop
joint roadmap for radiation protection research - state of the art
guidance on using shielding on patients for diagnosis radiology applications
Events in ALARA
Issue 43 - June 2020
You can access here the 43th issue of the European ALARA Network Newsletter. This is a special issue on the challenges on ALARA in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic.
- The Impacts of Covid-19 pandemic on ALARA - Testimonies from EAN Members:
- Testimony from Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety, Mr. F. Kabrt, Mrs E. Linder-Leschinski.
- Testimony from Nuclear Protection Evaluation Centre, France, Mr. S. Andresz.
- Testimony from Environmental Protection Agency, Ireland, Mr. H. Synnott.
- Testimony from Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Mr. N. Stritt and colleagues.
- Testimony from Public Health England, Mrs. J. Morgan.
A Glimpse on Initiatives taken by several RP-related Organizations during the Covid-19 Pandemic
- IAEA Webinars: Maintaining the Highest Level of Radiation Protection During the Covid-19 Pandemic, Mr. O. Burcin, Mrs. L. Doicanova, IAEA
- Other initiatives : SHARE, SRP in United Kingdom, SFRP and EDP Sciences, World Nuclear News.
The Radium Action Plan in Switzerland 2015-2022, Mr. N. Stritt, Mrs. M. Palacios and colleagues
What's new in EAN?
Optimization of Radiation Protection - ALARA: A Practical Guidebook
The EAN Working Group on ALARA Culture has achieved the elaboration of a book on the ALARA principle. Optimization of Radiological Protection - ALARA: A Practical Guidebook intends to give a clear and practical picture of what is ALARA and how to apply it – and in line with the last recommendations and standards from international organizations. ALARA: A Practical Guidebook provides an extensive description of the ALARA principle, elaborates on the specificities of ALARA for the different exposure situations and is illustrated by more than 40 examples of application in different exposure situations: nuclear installation, medical facilities, 'natural' exposure, emergency exposure situations etc. The examples are coming from the real-life.
ALARA: A Practical Guidebook is addressed to organizations and peopled involved in radiation protection and its allied fields at work or having an interest in it – engineers and technicians, experts and managers etc. The Book can also be used as training material for teachers and students in radiation protection.
With ALARA: A Practical Guidebook, the Working Group and the EAN wishes to contribute to the awareness and education in radiation protection and in all its field of application. The objective is to participate to a wider and more uniform implementation of ALARA into practice, so to ensure the efficient optimisation of the exposures and the better protection of the people.
Optimization of Radiation Protection - ALARA: A Practical Guidebook (.pdf, 4.5 Mo), ISBN: 978-2_9569796-0-9 © 2019, The European ALARA Network Edition.
19th EAN Workshop "Innovative ALARA Tools"
! 2 workshops in 1 !
PODIUM Dissemination workshop and EAN 19th workshop Innovative ALARA Tools
Athens, Greece, 26 and 27 – 28 November 2019
2nd announcement with preliminary programme here
registration website here
Aims and objectives of the workshops
Innovations in instrumentation, computing and information technology have provided numerous tools for improving our day-to-day lives. In the same way, new and innovative approaches to radiation protection (RP) could also be developed, in particular in the ALARA process. However, as with most new technologies, issues and challenges need to be identified and tackled. The PODIUM Project and the European ALARA Network have come together to organize a joint workshop to present PODIUM results, innovative ALARA tools and discuss broadly their use in advancing RP and ALARA.
PODIUM Workshop (26 Nov. 2019)
The main aim of the PODIUM project is the development of an online dosimetry application based on computer simulations without the use of physical dosemeters. Real movements of exposed workers captured by tracking tools have been used together with Monte Carlo simulations for the development of the application. The methodology has been applied in two crucial workplaces where improvements in dosimetry are urgently needed: neutron and interventional radiology workplaces. The availability of advanced online dosimetry applications such as these in the radiation protection field will increase awareness among workers and should improve the implementation of the ALARA principle.
During the dissemination of the project results's workshop, emphasis will be given on how exposed workers can be trained by using real-time dose results to effectively apply the ALARA principle.
EAN Workshop (27-28 Nov. 2019)
The objectives of the European ALARA Network workshop are:
- to present and review recent and emerging "innovative ALARA Tools” used in the different steps of the ALARA process: e.g. radiological characterization and evaluation of the exposure, planning and decision phases and follow-up and feedback.
- to investigate the benefits of the tools and identify potential limits in their application;
- to disseminate the knowledge on innovative ALARA Tools in support of the ALARA process;
- to investigate how innovative ALARA Tools and innovation may (re)shape the ALARA process for the next years: evolution or revolution?
A significant part of the EAN Workshop is devoted to discussions in Working Groups (each participant can participate in one Working Group). The provisional topics for discussion by the Working Groups are:
- Are there specific challenges in the ALARA process that may be solved by innovative “ALARA Tools” (under development or to be developed)?
- Are there specific issues which may limit the development and/or the use of innovative “ALARA Tools” (technical, legislative, ethical etc.)? How to deal with these issues?
- What is the role of the radiation protection professionnals (RPEs/MPEs/ RPOs, ...) with respect to these tools?
- There is currently a lot of focus on research and innovation in areas beyond that of traditional RP research, notably artificial intelligence. Does IA have the potential to shape the ALARA process in the next year?
The workshop conclusions and recommendations will summarise the main points of the presentations and the discussions held during the Working Groups.
Second announcement (with programme) of the workshops is available.
The workshop was hosted by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (EEAE) at the Congress Center of the National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos” (Patr. Gregoriou E & 27 Neapoleos Str, 15341 Agia Paraskevi, Athens).
Session 1 - Innovative ALARA tools in radiological characterization and first evaluation (Chair: Mr. F. Vermeersch)
- Introduction and setting the scene (F. Vermeersch, SCK•CEN)
- Use of drones in the assessment of uncommon exposure situations (J. Camps, SCK•CEN)
- Personal dose computation using monitoring systems and 3D cameras (M. Abdelrahman, SCK•CEN)
- The Way of CEN - Dose Assessment for Construction Products (B. Hoffman, BfS)
- In-vivo incorporation of radionuclides of workers: measurements vs. evaluation with GEANT4 (S. Medici, IRA)
Session 2 - Innovative ALARA tools in planning and decision (Chair: Mr. S. Andresz)
- The VISIPLAN software: to perform dose assessment under different scenarios (F. Vermeersch, SCK•CEN)
- ALARA, Ethics, the ICRP System and Innovation: Aligned? (Prof. J. Malone, Trinity College Dublin; Ireland)
- Introduction to working groups (S. Andresz, CEPN)
- Artificial intelligence in interventional techniques (Prof. E. Efstathopoulos, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)
- Decision aiding tools considering multiple criteria (T. Kenny, EPA)
- Manuela: an advanced 3D characterization material in NPP (B. Chagneau, Orano)
- Using RayXpert© Monte Carlo code to optimize radiological protections in a nuclear medicine service, B. Simony, C. Dossat, A. Ghilardi (TRAD), J. F. Rauch, L. Whitfield (Hôpital Albi)
Session 3 - Innovative ALARA tools for the follow-up and feedback (Chair: Mr. P. Croüail)
- The D-Schuttle for the collection, capitalization and broadcasting of radiological data after radiological events (W. Naito, P. Croüail, CEPN, AIST)
- Impact of the Euratom Directive on the need of follow up and feedback from activities (C. Pafilis, S. Economides, EEAE)
- Evolving Fluoro Worker Dosimetry (Prof. S. Balter, New York University)
Session 4 - Working Groups Reports
- Report from Working Group 1 (S. Medici, IRA) - Are there specific challenges in ALARA that may be solved by innovative tools?
- Report from Working Group 2 (F. Kabrt) - Are there specific issues that may limit the development of innovative ALARA tools?
- Report from Working Group 3 (F. Vermeersch, SCK•CEN) - What is the role of the radiation protection professional with regard to these ALARA tools?
- Report from Working Group 4 (S. Andresz, CEPN) - Does Artificial Intelligence has the potential to shape the ALARA process?
- Conclusions and Recommendations (tbw)
18th Workshop: ALARA in Decommissioning and Site Remediation
18th European ALARA Network Workshop [organized in collaboration with ISOE], Marcoule, France, 11 – 13 March 2019
"ALARA in Decommissioning and Site Remediation"
The participants (ICSM Marcoule, 11th March 2019).
Aims and objectives
The objectives of the workshop were:
- To present the regulatory background and latest guidance and
- standards regarding radiation protection for decommissioning and site remediation; both in the nuclear and the non-nuclear sectors.
- To examine the conceptual and the practical aspects of the optimisation (ALARA) principle in these fields for workers and the public. The workshop aims at gathering a large array of experience and feedback from work performed in nuclear installations, installations outside the nuclear fuel cycle (ex. research facilities) and legacy sites.
- To discuss and investigate selected key themes and overriding issues with regard to ALARA; to identify remaining needs and perspectives.
The workshop was jointly organized with the ISOE Working Group on Decommissioning (WG-DECOM).
The final programme is available here. As part of the programme, time was devoted for discussions in working groups between participants. A technical visit of Marcoule installations was organized.
Session 1 - Setting the scene
- CEA Marcoule Activities and Project — J.M. Carrere, CEA Marcoule
- The EAN in Collaboration in ISOE - Former EAN workshops on the theme — F. Vermeersch, SCK•CEN, EAN Chair
- ALARA in Decommissioning, the Point of View of ISOE WGDECOM — L. Vaillant, CEPN
- IAEA Safety standards for decommissioning and remediation, and their application — J. Rowat, International Atomic Energy Agency
- Creation of NEA Committee on Decommissioning and Legacy Management — G. Kwong, NEA
- Regulatory Requirements for Radiation Protection in Decommissioning in Germany — B. Rehs, BfE
Session 2 - ALARA for decommissioning and remediation of nuclear installations
- Scenarios and Strategy for Dismantling Hot Cell M2 at LHMA Installation, Mol — P. Antoine, SCK•CEN
- The Decommissioning of a Low Flux Reactor — F. Draaisma, NRG
- ALARA Approach Dismantling Pit 7 — F. Petitot, CEA & C. Durain, Orano
- Radiological Characterization to Lay the Foundation of ALARA. Experience from Mühleberg NPP — E. Neukäter, BKW
- The Decommissioning of Research Installations at CIEMAT in Madrid — J. C. Saez Vergara, CSN
- The site remediation of the FBFC fuel cycle facility in Dessel, Belgium — C. Mommaert, Bel V
- Full System Decontamination under ALARA Point of View — M. Knaack, TüV Nord
Session 3 - ALARA for decommissioning and remediation of site outside the nuclear sector
- The Radium Action Plan in Switzerland — M. Palacios, SFOPH
- Remediation of a Former Gas Mantle Factory Contaminated with Radioactive Thorium-232 — A. Lowe, PHE
- Radiation Protection in the Management of Radioactive Geological Material in Private Buildings — J. Amoudruz, IRSN
- Remediation and Release of the Randstad Uranium Mining and Milling Site — H. Efraimsson, SSM
Session 4 - Transversal issues: holistic approach and waste
- Mixed Alpha/Asbestos Risk Management at EDF DP2D— G. Ranchoux, EDF
- Choosing a Strategy for Waste: Recycling? Disposal? Experience from an Italian Agency — R. Rusconi, ARPA Lombardia
- Risk Management for Legacy Sites and Wastes: Implications for Proportionate Risk Management and a Graded Approach to Risk Assessment — G. Smith
- Decommissioning of Non-Nuclear Facilities - an Insight into the Process — A. Bloot, Applus+ RTD
- Restricted Clearance - PAH's Posing a Challenge ni Dismantling — S. Fleck, VKTA
Session 5 - Working Groups Reports - Conclusions and Recommendations
- Introduction to the Working Groups — S. Andresz, CEPN
- Report from Working Group 1a - How to apply the ALARA principle for workers for decommissioning and site remediation?
- Report from Working Group 1b - How to apply the ALARA principle for workers for decommissioning and site remediation?
- Report from Working Group 3 - The holistic approach: how to be ALARA in the context of other risks?
- Report from Working Group 4 - The challenges raised by waste and how to overcome?
- Conclusions and Recommendations (preliminary) — F. Vermeersch, SCK•CEN, J. Morgan, PHE and S. Andresz, CEPN