Issue 37 - February 2016
You can download here the 37thissue of the EAN Newsletter (pdf, 2 Mo).
The Radium Action Plan in Switzerland, Messrs. Nicolas STRITT, Sébastien BAECHLER, Christophe MURITH, Federal Office of Public Health, Bern, Switzerland
The Use of Thyroid Shield in Dental Radiography, Mr. John HOLROYD, PUblic Health England, Leeds, United Kingdom
Low Compliance with X-Rays Procedures, Mrs. Camilla LARSSON, Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm, Sweden
EAN NORM launches its new website and announces its 8th Workshop
Please note that EANNORM Network has designed a new website. You may want to have a look at www.ean-norm.eu and explore it!
Furthermore, the Network is happy to annouce the organization of it 8th EAN_NORM workshop, that will be held from 5 to 7 December 2016 in Stockholm. The announcement and further details can be found at http://ean-norm.eu/?page_id=96
16th EAN Workshop on "ALARA in Industrial Radiography"
16th European ALARA Network Workshop, Berne, Switzerland, 14 – 16 March 2016
"ALARA in Industrial Radiography - How can it be improved?"
Aims and objectives
Industrial radiography (for non-destructive testing (NDT)) using gamma and X-ray sources is a long-established and widespread practice. A key radiation protection principle is optimisation, to ensure that the radiation exposure of radiography workers and other persons is As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). In 2001, in Rome, the 5th EAN Workshop specifically considered ALARA in industrial radiography. It was concluded that ALARA was not always being achieved, and improvements in radiography equipment, working procedures, training and safety culture were recommended. Since then, industrial radiography has remained an area of concern in radiation protection, due to the levels of radiation exposure received and, in particular, the number and magnitude of accidental exposures. Consequently, EAN has decided to re-visit this topic.
The objectives of the workshop are:
- To review the conclusions and recommendations of the 5th EAN workshop, held in Rome in 2001, and determine whether any real improvements have been made (see link in the right column).
- To ask what else might be done to improve radiation safety in industrial radiography and ensure that exposures are ALARA.
The workshop consisted of presentations (oral and posters) intended to highlight the main issues, and a significant part of the program was devoted to discussions within working groups. From these discussions, participants are expected to produce recommendations on ALARA in industrial radiography, which are addressed to relevant local, national and international stakeholders.
As part of the programme, time has been devoted for discussions between participants (divided in four working groups). The working groups have tackled issues such as :
- Radiography equipment: can we make it safer (WG1)?
- Learning from radiography accidents: how do we stop them from happening again (WG2)?
- Training and Safety Culture: how can these be improved (WG3)?
- The ALARA process in radiography: setting suitable dose and risk constraints (WG4).
Session 1 - Setting the scene
- EAN and ALARA in Industrial Radiography (684 kB) — F. Vermeersch, EAN
- The Role of EFNDT in Industrial Radiography (1078 kB) — M. Purschke, EFNDT
- Application of the Commission Recommendations: Development of User Focused Reports (531 kB) — K. Cho, ICRP
- Industrial Radiography and the ISEMIR Project (750 kB) — R. Van Sonsbeek, Applus RTD
- The Regulatory Inspector's Perspective (684 kB) — H. Synnott, EPA Ireland
- Industrial Radiographic Testing in Public Places in Switzerland (2653 kB) — D. Grütter, SVS
- The Client's perspective: Radiation Protection on EDF NPP sites (472 kB) — E. Carreau, EDF
Session 2 - Industrial Radiography Equipment
- Gamma-Radiography: State of the Art or Unjustified Activity? (2231 kB) — C. Kaps, EFNDT
- Reducing the Size of Radiography Controlled Areas (500 kB) — C. Bergeron, IS Groupe
- Dose Reduction by Digital X-Rays Detectors (2080 kB) — B. Redmer, BAM
- Industrial Radiography Equipment Maintenance (784 kB) — T. Frühwirth, B. Wellens, NES
- Gamma Radiography Sources and Equipment - Design Improvements and Industry Adoption (415.5 kB) — M. Fuller, ISSPA
- Ibero-American Forum of Radiological and Nuclear Regulatory Agencies (FORO) (1915 kB) — W. A. Truppa, Argentinian NRA
Session 3 - Learning from Industrial Radiography Incidents
- Annual Reports of Incidents/Accidents in Radiography in France (1530 kB) — B-M Ayadi, A. Cordelle, IRSN
- Radiography Incidens in Germany (716 kB) — M. Sonntag, SGD
- Radiography Incidents in Norway (957 kB) — S. Øvergaard, NRPA
- Gamma Radiography Source Recovery Equipment (1940 kB) — S. Buechi, SUVA
- Radiography Incident in Belgium - Recovery of a Co-60 Source in a Foundry (2983 kB) — R. Berden, FANC
- Radiography Incident in France (Feursmetal) (650 kB) — A. Dubouchet, IRSN
Session 4 - Education and Training and ALARA Culture
- OTHEA Lessons-Learned from Industrial Radiography Incidents (326 kB) — P. Shaw, PHE
- RP Training for Radiographers in Germany (384 kB) — A. Steege, DGZfP
- Web-based Inspections in Industrial Radiography (491 MB) — B. H. Knutsen, NRPA
- ENETRAP: European Guidance on RPE and RPO - Implications for Industrial Radiography? (168 kB) — A. Schmitt-Hannig, BfS
- The Management of Industrial Radiography Incidents (742 kB) — E. Carreau, EDF
Session 5 - Conclusions and Recommendations
- Report from Working Group 1 - Radiography Equipment (85 kB)
- Report from Working Group 2 - Radiography Equipment (50 kB)
- Report from Working Group 3 - Learning from Incidents (25 kB)
- Report from Working Group 4 - Learning from Incidents (85 kB)
- Report from Working Group 5 - Training and Safety Culture (54 kB)
- Report from Working Group 6 - The ALARA Process in Industrial Radiography (70 kB)
- Final Conclusions and Recommendations (385 kB) — P. Shaw, PHE
- Case Study of an Accidental Exposure to X-Rays in Industrial Radiography (8,5 Mo) — P. Fias, P. Froment, K. Persyn, AV Controlatom
- Radiation Protection for Industrial Radiography at CERN (4,8 Mo) — C. Adorisio, N. Conan, V. Tromel, HSE-RP CERN
Issue 36 - February 2015
You can download here the 36thissue of the EAN Newsletter (pdf, 678 Ko).
Results of the EAN Survey on the Regulatory Approach for the Radiological Protection of Aircraft Crew, Mr. Sylvain Andresz (CEPN), Mr. Pascal Croüail (CEPN)
Industrial Radiography: Hand Injury from Exposure to X-Ray Beam (OTHEA incident)
Radium Action Plan in Switzerland, Mr. Nicolas Stritt (OFSP)
This article could be yours, EAN Newsletter Editorial Board.
Publication of the EAN Strategic Agenda for the 2015 - 2020 period
The Strategic Agenda of the European ALARA Network for the 2015 - 2020 period has been elaborated by the Members in 2014 and is now published on the website (in the 'Presentation of EAN/EAN Strategic Plan' section). The Strategic Agenda reminds the general objectives of EAN and presents the objectives of the Network for the period and the work programme to fulfil it.
EAN Strategic Agenda 2015 - 2020 (pdf, 455 Kb)
Issue 35 - October 2014
You can download here the 35thissue of the EAN Newsletter (pdf, 549 Ko).
PET CT - How much is too much?, Dr. Martin O'Connel, Mater Misericordia University Hospital, Dublin
How do you know you work ALARA? Mr. Sylvain Andresz (CEPN), Mrs. Karin Fritioff (Vattenfall AB)
15th EAN/5th EUTERP Workshop : Education and Training in Radiation Protection: Improving ALARA Culture, Rovinj, Croatia 7-9 May 2014 - Summary and Recommendations, Mr. Peter Shaw (PHE), Mr. Pascal Croüail (CEPN), Mr. Richard Paynter (SCK•CEN), Mrs Michèle Coeck (SCK•CEN)
This article could be yours, EAN Newsletter Editorial Board.
EAN NORM announces its 7th Workshop
Please note that EANNORM plans its 7th Workshop on "Disposal of NORM in EU Member States" and a Topical Day on "Building Materials". The Workshop is to be held from 2nd to 4th December 2014 in Vlissingen (the Netherlands).
The 2nd annoucement (flyer) can be found here and the registration form downloaded here (.doc, 37 Ko - to be mailed to the Chairperson of the Organizing Committee). The template for abstract can be downloaded here (.doc, 24 Ko).
How to test the effectiveness of training ? A practical solution
The 15th EAN workshop on "Improving ALARA Culture through Education and Training" was in particular focus on measuring the effectiveness of training.
Following their presentation during the workshop E. Grindrod and J. Stewart from Public Health England propose in this article an "untraditionnal" approach to test knowledge, application and competences of emergency responders at the end of their training event. The article deals with the advantages and disavantages of this approach and looks for areas of future development.
The article can be downladed here (pdf, 132 Ko).
14th EAN Workshop on "ALARA in existing exposure situations"
14th European ALARA Network Workshop, Ireland 4-6 September 2012
"ALARA IN EXISTING EXPOSURE SITUATIONS"
The concept of “existing exposure situations” was introduced by ICRP in Publication No. 103 (2007), and is included in the revised European Basic Safety Standards Directive. It is defined as exposure situations that already exist when a decision on control has to be taken, such as those caused by natural background radiation and radioactive residues from past practices or events. Examples include radon in dwellings and buildings with public access, building materials and management of contaminated areas from past practices and post-accidents. Other situations such as exposure from cosmic rays and NORMs may also be included.
Optimisation is the key radiation protection principle for existing exposure situations, although it is not always clear how to apply this in practice. Consequently, the aim of the 14th EAN workshop is to focus on how the ALARA principle can be applied to the whole range of existing exposure situations. The Workshop will consider the wider principles and strategies that might be adopted, as well as the specific methods for implementing ALARA in practice.
This workshop will consist of presentations intended to highlight the main issues, and a significant part of the programme will be devoted to discussions within working groups. From these discussions, participants will be expected to produce recommendations on ALARA in existing exposure situations addressed to relevant local, national and international stakeholders.
Working Group Topics
- ALARA challenges and practicalities at the national and regional levels
- Considerations in choosing reference levels
- Economical, technical factors and endpoints of optimisation
- Societal factors and stakeholders engagement
Radiation protection of aircraft crew
Between December 2010 and January 2012, EAN performed a survey about radiation protection of aircraft crew. The following questions were sent to the members of the network.
- What are the main requirements?
- What are the means and tools used to assess aircrew's exposure?
- Is there a specific dose criteria defined for aircraft crew?
3. Could you provide data on the number of aircrew exposed, maximum annual level of exposure, average annual level of exposure, etc.?
14 countries answered the request about radiation protection of aircraft crew: Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Slovenia, Sweden, the Netherlands and the UK. There is not a regulation concerning radiation protection requirements for aircraft crew in Norway.
Download the results of the survey: Aircraft crew
ERPAN (European Radiation Protection Authorities Network) carried out a survey in April 2010 on how dose constraints, as defined in the EU Directive are applied in the non-nuclear energy sector across Europe. The following questions were sent to the participants to the network.
- Does your country use dose constraints in the context of occupational exposures (non-nuclear sector)
- If so what are they called?
- Are occupational dose constraints mentioned in national legislation/regulations?
- If so, please provide a reference to the relevant regulations?
- Please provide (in English) the actual wording used in the regulations?
- For what industries, processes, tasks, types of workers – all workers? the most exposed workers? specific categories of workers? etc. – are dose constraints used?
- How are dose constraints used in practice?
- Why are dose constraints introduced?
- What are the benefits of introducing dose constraints?
- Who sets dose constraint (utilities or authorities)?
- How are dose constraints set e.g. for a set of sources or for individual sources?
- Are dose constraints “misused”, for example implicitly or explicitly as secondary limits (to dose limits)?
- Are dose constraints used as a regulatory instrument?
- Who manages performance against dose constraints and other occupational radiation protection criteria?
- In what context are dose constraints set: for sites (refers to design) or for tasks (refers to operation)?
- How are dose constraints fixed, implemented, and controlled in each of these cases?
- In practice, has enforcing (individual) dose constraints resulted in negative consequences (e.g. higher collective doses, increased costs, etc.)?
- What approaches have proven successful in discussing dose constraints between regulatory authorities and licensees?
- Have you any experience in balancing occupational radiation protection dose constraints with the management of other risks (e.g. industrial, chemical/biological safety issues)?
Answers from 11 countries were received: Belgium, France, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK. The detailed answers can be found in the Appendix 1 of the EGOE (Expert Group on Occupational Exposure of the CRPPH - Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health) report on dose constraints. EGOE case study 2
A presentation was made of this survey in the ICRP symposium on the International System of Radiological Protection held at Bethesda on October 26th to 28th. ICRP presentation on dose constraints
EAN Strategic Plan 2010-2015
For 1.5 years, the EAN Steering Group has worked on a 2010-2015 Strategic Plan for the network. This document describes the expected work of EAN during this period taking into account the future challenges for ALARA in Europe.
RELIR/OTHEA - Lessons learned from radiological incidents
HPA (the UK) and CEPN (France) have launched the RELIR-OTHEA mirror-website. RELIR/OTHEA is provided by a network of French and English radiation protection stakeholders, who have a joint interest in sharing feedback and experience from radiological incidents, in order to improve the protection of persons working with similar radiation sources. More generally, the aim is to encourage good practices (especially the implementation of the ALARA/ALARP principle) within different sectors - medical and veterinary, industrial, research and education sectors, etc.
The incidents reports are anonymous and have been selected on the basis of those which provide interesting and useful lessons, to help others prevent such incidents and/or mitigate the consequences.